What you see isn’t necessarily what it seems- on current news and continuous learning #Europe #China


I know that I was supposed to share this over the week-end, but sometimes it is better to wait.

My older online non-business readers (since 2007, on stage6.divx.com, as aleph123- but with my face and hiding just the name, not with a fake identity) know that my rationale for sharing online a work-in-process is to fulfil few objectives at the same time.

Digression: a plan isn’t cast in stone- it is an assessment of a future state that you want to achieve, an assessment prepared before you had a) perfect knowledge (otherwise, why you plan again what it is just an encore?) b) let reality interact with your plan.

At the bottom of this post, I will share a long, long list of phrases in Mandarin/Pinyin transliteration/Google Sinenglish (i.e. Chinese translated into English as meant by GoogleTranslate), preceded by a short commentary.

But before that, I would like to share something else: over the last few days, it was an inescapable reality to read articles commenting on the latest tragedy out of Libya- and I had to wonder how it seems that there is a threshold to our public expression of outrage, as there was limited reaction to what happened few days before, when about 400 people disappeared on their travel to Europe, something that was almost forgotten while discussing the more recent about 1,000 people lost.

People- because the 1,000,000 people supposed to be waiting between Libya and areas surrounding Turkey to reach Europe are not “lives lost”, but “people lost”.

I shared few links on Facebook both today and over the last week(some in Italian, for an Italian audience- i.e. remembering what Libya interaction with Italy has been over the last century)- but the summary is: we cannot have it both way.

We cannot build a “fortress Europe” and still strive to be acknowledged as a “force for good” within our region, while also pretending to be a global player.

I do not know about you, but I got tired of politicians (mostly in Italy) calling each other a shark for politicizing an expected tragedy in a string of tragedies: I worked on immigration a decade ago, and had been interested on the subject (including talking with immigrants, not just attending conferences) since the late 1970s, and I see the same conditioned reflex expanding as the European Union turned into a reality and increased its integration- writ large.

Everybody is politicizing the events: that’s what politicians do- and also political commentators (myself included).

What matters, is that somebody that has the power to do so delivers on yet another promise of “never again”.

Everything else, is just chatter- chatter that will not alter the migration patterns.

Almost a decade ago, as part of that online personal presence I wrote about at the beginning, I made up a fictional “United Hamster Front”.

Born as a joke, eventually expanded on a simple consideration: managing the commons is something that our national states are increasingly inadequate for.

Trouble is: to manage the commons at a level that is appropriate (i.e. the Mediterranean is an issue affecting from the Atlantic to the Urals and Black Sea) our current mechanisms for cooperation, based basically on a “quid pro quo” (a “bargaining” approach), are equally inadequate- as it is not a matter of compensation between different dossiers.

Both Western democracies and other institutional forms have a significant challenge to cope with: “buying in” a public (voters, citizens, whatever) that has been spoon-fed since a century ago on short-term solutions for short-term issues, and is at best able to think in terms of electoral cycles (quite convenient, for elective democracies- but it is more a matter of effect than cause).

The European Union since the 1950s developed a small “trick” that can work only when resources are available- evolve through crises, i.e. pushing through “emergency measures” as a substitute for getting democratic consensus.

Eventually, this approach turns elective democracy into a figment of imagination, and the public/voters into a sceptical albeit occasionally riotous mob (in Italy, on a family level- declined as an endless series of “mafias”).

The old approach, e.g. represented by the school system I was enrolled in (high school was divided between few layers, ranging from those preparing “subservient cogs-in-the-wheel”, to “political/philosophers”- I attended the one supposed to form from bureaucrats to generals, as I was told :D), or the one that until recently was still available in Germany (a kid having to choose her/his pattern through life once and for all even before s/he gets the right to vote), is, you guess it… inadequate.

Finland is now trying to shift its educational system toward another pattern, that should be able to better prepare citizens able to think about the “big picture”- beside the immediate advantages that could derive from the ability to withstand market changes (e.g. the need to re-train once in a while for a different career path), a further side-effect would be that, as citizens, they will be less content with politicians selling simplistic solutions for complex issues, and then just claiming that everything from “the markets” to “the Martians” is the culprit for inability to deliver on ludicrous campaign promises.

Meanwhile, we have to cope with what we have/we willingly became: mostly people who do not want to cope with complexity, and elect those that make us happy (or promise to be so) with the minimal inconvenience to our ways and means (I know- I hold an Italian passport, but from my experiences around Europe, while in my country the “caudillo-orientation” is stronger, in most democracies it is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon).

It will take a while- but if you never start, you will never get anywhere.

Luckily, social media have the potential of being something more than a “mob-oriented frustration-venting tool”: it will probably develop across “clusters” of people (not necessarily homogeneous, not necessarily agreeing with each other) that occasionally will “converge” on something, but will then keep an eye on whoever they selected as the “champion” of their cause.

I wouldn’t be surprised if, eventually, we were to have at the top, on specific issues, the “most appropriate specialist of the day that happens to be a politician focused on that issue”- only for as long as needed (no “man for all seasons”).

On a smaller scale, I am still continuing my attempts to relocate (in Italy, I will keep having opportunities to work unpaid, or to get underpaid for A, while working unpaid into something that benefits from what I did in the past- so, if those are the options, better to get where at least I can have a different cultural experience- it has been my position since 2005, and will still be so).

As I wrote often in the past, I am used since decades to work on three levels: short-term plans, medium-term programmes, and long-terms ideas/dreams.

Frankly, if it weren’t for my caravanserai of timewasters that I collected in Italy and around Europe at least since I moved abroad for the first time in 1998, I would have probably never started to post online, never had considered writing my first book as a “work in process” while visiting Berlin in 2012, never had kept writing.

Now that the gates are open, obviously I cannot stop it: as an Italian friend/connection said (and I repeated few times online), when I was 43 she assumed that I was hiding my age, as the “long telegram” version of my CV had enough experience for her to consider that I should be… 143 (OK, now 150- almost as old as the unified Italian State :D).

The beauty of having a learning, listening, and sharing knowledge attitude is that the “knowledgebase” develops through a geometric progression.

Meaning: the more you learn (directly or through others), the more you see the boundaries of your ignorance, but also the more you identify potential re-uses of what you know in other fields- sometimes acting as a “catalyst” for others, more specialized/focused/committed to their own field of expertise, to develop something “innovative”- maybe saving time and resources that could be used elsewhere.

And by interacting with them, you too further expand, and improve your ability, if you are so inclined, to push a little bit more the boundaries of your ignorance.

Personally, I think that to ignorance applies what we can say (in business- but also in political life) to security: there is never a 100% “ignorance free” (or “security”).

Back to the three planning timescales: my “learn all the official languages of the UN” still remains part of the long-term ideas/dreams, but while some building blocks are now on the short-term (e.g. my Spanish reading skills are improving, my English writing skills are getting better), a bit that was long-term (Chinese) is now a “programme”, i.e. medium-term.

Why Chinese? Because I think that, at least in my lifetime (I hope to keep writing and learning for few more decades), both English and Chinese (and maybe also Spanish) will be dominant international languages.

At the same time, for somebody focused on European languages, Chinese has a long learning path, and therefore it is a convenient way to have something that spreads from short-term activities to long-term ideas (not anymore just dreams).

Recently I received a tablet that has the same characteristics of my older Blackberry Playbook- but it is smaller, weighs less, and adds the possibility to have two SIM (mobile phone) cards at the same time.

I migrated onto it some Chinese-language tools that I had used on my previous smartphone- so, while reviewing a HSK1+2 course, I am using my waiting time (queues, etc.) to exercise with both the left and right hand on scribbling characters by using a kind of “Tetris with characters” game, expanding on other tools (mostly free, some paid- e.g. to recognize tones in Mandarin, and to learn the HSK characters set, 1 to 6, albeit for the time being I am limiting to up to HSK3).

At the same time, moving language learning into the realms of practical activities, I needed to add a compelling task- so, as my “writing programme” on organizational change (have a look at http://www.robertolofaro.com/books to see what is currently available, published between 2013 and April 2015) could use something based on historical “depth”, I remembered what I read while in Brussels on the history of the Chinese bureaucracy and examination system.

I will skip discussing how I found it (as I wrote about this before), but I am now through the second round on a course on “classical China”- second round, as unfortunately it is available on Coursera only in Chinese, so I had to do a first round to create subtitles in English and Pinyin by using GoogleTranslate (hence, the “Sinenglish” I am referring to above); frankly, if I hadn’t read few thousand pages on Chinese history over the last couple of years, most of what is within the course would not have been understandable from the translation 😀

This second round is focused on getting through all the course, to identify the areas that I will try to translate by improving on GoogleTranslate through the use of dictionaries (digital, as I did for Russian, when I translated an interview about Molotov’s assistant about his former boss organizational management practices from Kommersant- and a Russian friend said that it was OK, cross-checking only few points).

Yes, learning to translate from Latin in high school was useful, whenever I am learning a language, as I got used to a “learn as you go”, instead of just waiting until I know everything (incidentally: the same attitude was repeatedly useful in my line of business- just have a look at the number of industries I worked in, on http://www.robertolofaro.com/CV – obviously, it would have been impossible, if I had waited to get a degree in each one of the disciplines involved :D).

So, it is not a matter of “brain disposition”- it is matter of willingness to work hard and learn hard- from the basics up, jumping ahead sometimes, falling back some times, but eventually moving ahead: it can be done by anybody willing to do so.

In my course review, notably, I liked the concept of going back three generations on any applicant for public office, plus arranging the examination in teams of five people, to avoid cheating and false statements- if one cheats, either in the application or during the exams, all five are kicked out and/or punished…

…computer-less, but more efficient than our “gambling” attitude to cheaters (e.g. the “gotcha” approach of services checking if what you filed is a prime example of plagiarism).  

At the same time, it had a well-developed (at least from books that I read in the past, plus the material provided within the course lectures) set of rules to avoid any conflict of interest- i.e. to protect both the examiners and the exams from undue external or internal influences- ranging from using examiners in different locations from their own place of dwelling, to re-writing any submitted material to avoid that examiners could recognize the handwriting of candidates.

Nonetheless, while I mostly quickly browsed through the discussion on poems (yes- in order to show that they had a proper grasp of Chinese classics and culture, candidates had to prepare poems: considering the legal mumbo-jumbo that I routinely see coming from Italian and European institutions, I would not dare to ask to do the same within the EU 😀 albeit I can easily spot the difference in cultural background from how politicians and bureaucrats speak or write).

More creative, but really language-dependent, the way in which cheating was sometimes done, i.e. by hiding within the text the characters that spelled out the name of the candidate (something significantly more difficult to achieve in languages based on Latin alphabets).

Anyway- hilarious the discussion (and presentation of historical artefacts) on how cheating was turned into a form of art; my favorite? the jacket that contained all the four classical reference books… written on it!

OK, this is just the second round, for the third round I will actually focus on translating the material of the sessions that are relevant to my task.

Before some between you go and try to apply the material on your own activities… beware: as any decent organizational change consultant would tell you, any system embeds a culture, and any culture has some side-effects.

A system that lasted 13 centuries, as even the professors in the course admit, can become resistant to change, as the continuity of the examination process takes over the original reason why it was created (i.e. churning out bureaucrats who could be “mutually compatible” and with a decent level of certified quality)- but that happens with any bureaucracy.

For the time being, here is the (GoogleTranslated) list of sessions, with a *** across those that, for the time being, I am focusing on translating (sessions 5 and 6), as soon as I will have completed the second round through all the material.

Yes, other sessions might be relevant as well (e.g. the one on the administrative partitioning of China, or on the family structure, or even those on rites and books), but I will keep that as “background knowledge” (something you have to be aware of, but whose details can be safely left outside the picture to avoid cluttering).

Besides- I will still have time to get back to it whenever my Chinese language skills will be on a par with my (still evolving) English language ones (unless, of course, somebody in Beijing were to decide that it is a worthwhile effort to translate all the material into English before a multilingual Italian makes a mess of it :D)

If you are interested in one of the sessions that I marked, drop me a line: obviously I will use this material as “background” (along with a seemingly never-ending list of books, as I keep adding) to a book on organizational development across the history of China, but if the authors have nothing against it, I am willing to share a translation of the slides for session 5 (unfortunately for session 6 slides are not provided, so I will have to build them) and selected summaries of both session 5 and 6.

As I am getting close to 3,000 words, and I have still some quick browsing to do on other sessions, it is probably the best time to close this post (yes, I did not re-read it, as it would be pointless right now: you have to let some time get through, so maybe I will re-read it over the week-end).

Have a nice week!

PS the picture? Today Google is celebrating the 81st anniversary of the first picture of Loch Ness’ monster: so, that was the… whole inspiration of this post!

by 廖可斌, 刘玉才, 漆永祥, 刘萍, 杨海峥, 林嵩

Ancient Chinese Culture
by Kebin Liao, Yucai Liu, Yongxiang Qi, Liu Ping, Yang Haizheng, Lin Song

Zhōngguó gǔdài wénhuà
by liàokěbīn, liúyùcái, qī yǒng xiáng, liú píng, yánghǎizhēng, lín sōng
Ancient Chinese Culture
by Kebin Liao, Yucai Liu, Yongxiang Qi, Liu Ping, Yang Haizheng, Lin Song

Week 1 中华文明的肇基

1-1 文化的概念(5’55”)
1-2 中华文明发生的地理环境(5’17”)
1-3 文明的历程(1)(7’12’)
1-4 文明的历程(2)(14’00”)
1-5 中华文明的主要元素(6’00”)
1-6 神话传说的寓意(14’38”)
1-7 中华观念的建构(15’48”)

Jau-Ji Week 1 Chinese civilization

1-1 The concept of culture (5’55 “)
Geographical environment of Chinese civilization occurred 1-2 (5’17 “)
1-3 course of civilization (1) (7’12 “)
History (2) (14’00 “) 1-4 civilization
1-5 The main elements of Chinese civilization (6’00 “)
The moral of the myths and legends 1-6 (14’38 “)
Construction of China 1-7 ideas (15’48 “)

Week 1 zhōnghuá wénmíng de zhào jī

1-1 wénhuà de gàiniàn (5’55”)
1-2 zhōnghuá wénmíng fāshēng dì dìlǐ huánjìng (5’17”)
1-3 wénmíng de lìchéng (1)(7’12’)
1-4 wénmíng de lìchéng (2)(14’00”)
1-5 zhōnghuá wénmíng de zhǔyào yuánsù (6’00”)
1-6 shénhuà chuánshuō de yùyì (14’38”)
1-7 zhōnghuá guānniàn de jiàngòu (15’48”)

Week 2 中国古代的宗法与家族
2-1 宗法制度早期形态(7’47”)
2-2 西周春秋典型宗法制度(1)(10’46”)
2-3 西周春秋典型宗法制度(2)(11’41”)
2-4 中古强宗大族与门阀制度(15’32”)
2-5 门阀士族制度的衰亡(10’15”)
2-6 宗法制度的重建与演变(1)(13’50″)
2-7 宗法制度的重建与演变(2)(17’21”)

Week 2 Chinese ancient patriarchal and family
2-1 early form of patriarchal system (7’47 “)
2-2 Western Zhou Chunqiu typical patriarchal system (1) (10’46 “)
2-3 Western Zhou Chunqiu typical patriarchal system (2) (11’41 “)
2-4 Middle Ages were Han strong and patriarch system (15’32 “)
Decline Gentry Clans 2-5 system (10’15 “)
2-6 patriarchal system reconstruction and evolution (1) (13’50 “)
2-7 patriarchal system reconstruction and evolution (2) (17’21 “)

Week 2 zhōngguó gǔdài de zōngfǎ yǔ jiāzú
2-1 zōngfǎ zhìdù zǎoqí xíngtài (7’47”)
2-2 xīzhōu chūnqiū diǎnxíng zōngfǎ zhìdù (1)(10’46”)
2-3 xīzhōu chūnqiū diǎnxíng zōngfǎ zhìdù (2)(11’41”)
2-4 zhōnggǔ qiáng zōng dàzú yǔ ménfá zhìdù (15’32”)
2-5 ménfá shìzú zhìdù de shuāiwáng (10’15”)
2-6 zōngfǎ zhìdù de chóngjiàn yǔ yǎnbiàn (1)(13’50”)
2-7 zōngfǎ zhìdù de chóngjiàn yǔ yǎnbiàn (2)(17’21”)

week 3 中国古代的礼仪制度

3-1 礼仪的起源(6’45”)
3-2 礼仪的功能(4’8″)
3-3 礼仪制度文献(1)(10’54”)
3-4 礼仪制度文献(2)(7’53”)
3-5 礼仪的分类(7’09”)
3-6 婚姻制度的历史沿革(9’33”)
3-7 古代婚姻多种形式(1)(9’07”)
3-8 古代婚姻礼俗“六礼” (10’03”)

week 3 Chinese ancient ritual system

3-1 etiquette origin (6’45 “)
3-2 ceremonial functions (4’8 “)
3-3 etiquette system literature (1) (10’54 “)
3-4 etiquette system literature (2) (7’53 “)
3-5 etiquette classification (7’09 “)
3-6 History of the institution of marriage (9’33 “)
3-7 of ancient forms of marriage (1) (9’07 “)
3-8 ancient marriage custom “Six Man” (10’03 “)

Week 3 zhōngguó gǔdài de lǐyí zhìdù

3-1 lǐyí de qǐyuán (6’45”)
3-2 lǐyí de gōngnéng (4’8″)
3-3 lǐyí zhìdù wénxiàn (1)(10’54”)
3-4 lǐyí zhìdù wénxiàn (2)(7’53”)
3-5 lǐyí de fēnlèi (7’09”)
3-6 hūnyīn zhìdù de lìshǐ yángé (9’33”)
3-7 gǔdài hūnyīn duō zhǒng xíngshì (1)(9’07”)
3-8 gǔdài hūnyīn lǐsú “liù lǐ” (10’03”)

week 4 中国古代的行政区划

中国古代的行政区划与历史地理(PDF) for 4-0 引言(1’41”)
4-0 引言(1’41”)
4-1 先秦时期行政区划制度的萌芽(6’30”)
4-2 秦汉大一统帝国的郡县二级行政区划(17’47”)
4-3 汉末州郡县三行政区划的形成及演变(10’56”)
4-4 隋唐五代的行政区划(17’27”)
4-5 两宋行政区划(18’35”)
4-6 元代行省制(5’23″)
4-7 明代行政区划(14’04”)
4-8 清代行政区划 (11’42”)
4-9 行政区划演变的规律(14’24”)

week 4 Ancient Chinese administrative division

Ancient Chinese History and Geography and administrative divisions (PDF) for 4-0 Introduction (1’41 “)
4-0 Introduction (1’41 “)
4-1 bud administrative division system during the Qin Dynasty (6’30 “)
Qin and Han 4-2 United Empire counties two administrative divisions (17’47 “)
State and County 4-3 late Han three administrative divisions of formation and evolution (10’56 “)
Sui’s administrative divisions 4-4 (17’27 “)
Song administrative divisions 4-5 (18’35 “)
4-6 Yuan province system (5’23 “)
Ming Dynasty administrative divisions 4-7 (14’04 “)
4-8 Qing administrative divisions (11’42 “)
The evolution of the law of administrative divisions 4-9 (14’24 “)

Week 4 zhōngguó gǔdài de xíngzhèng qūhuà

zhōngguó gǔdài de xíngzhèng qūhuà yǔ lìshǐ dìlǐ (PDF) for 4-0 yǐnyán (1’41”)
4-0 yǐnyán (1’41”)
4-1 xiānqín shíqí xíngzhèng qūhuà zhìdù de méngyá (6’30”)
4-2 qínhàn dà yītǒng dìguó de jùn xiàn èr jí xíngzhèng qūhuà (17’47”)
4-3 hàn mò zhōu jùn xiàn sān xíngzhèng qūhuà de xíngchéng jí yǎnbiàn (10’56”)
4-4 suítáng wǔdài de xíngzhèng qūhuà (17’27”)
4-5 liǎng sòng xíngzhèng qūhuà (18’35”)
4-6 yuán dàixíng shěng zhì (5’23”)
4-7 míngdài xíngzhèng qūhuà (14’04”)
4-8 qīng dài xíngzhèng qūhuà (11’42”)
4-9 xíngzhèng qūhuà yǎnbiàn de guīlǜ (14’24”)

*** week 5 中国古代的职官制度

中国古代的职官制度(PDF) for 5-01 夏商时代的官制(12’06“)
5-01 夏商时代的官制(12’06“)
5-02 西周官制(12‘56”)
5-03 春秋战国官制(15’56“)
5-04 秦汉中央官制(14’07”)
5-05 秦汉地方官制(14‘43“)
5-06 魏晋中央官制(10’24”)
5-07 魏晋地方官制(6‘03“)
5-08 隋朝官制(7’23”)
5-09 唐朝中央官制(12‘36“)
5-10 唐朝地方官制(13’04“)
5-11 宋代官制(1)(8‘23”)
5-12 宋代官制(2)(12’05“)
5-13 辽金元官制(6‘41”)
5-14 明中央官制(8’53“)
5-15 明地方官制(4‘27”)
5-16 清中央官制(7’18“)
5-17 清地方官制(10‘24”)
5-18 职官制度发展的特点(4’21“)

week 5 Official System in Ancient China TRANSLATE ALL AND RESTUDY AFTER BOOK

Ancient Chinese Official System (PDF) for 5-01 Bureaucracy Xia and Shang era (12’06 “)
Bureaucracy 5-01 Xia and Shang era (12’06 “)
5-02 Zhou Bureaucracy (12’56 “)
5-03 Autumn Bureaucracy (15’56 “)
5-04 Qin and Han Central Official (14’07 “)
5-05 Qin and Han Local Official (14’43 “)
5-06 Wei and Jin Central Official (10’24 “)
5-07 Local Official Wei and Jin (6’03 “)
5-08 Sui Zhaoguan system (7’23 “)
5-09 Tang Central Official (12’36 “)
5-10 Local Official Tang (13’04 “)
5-11 Song Bureaucracy (1) (8’23 “)
5-12 Song Bureaucracy (2) (12’05 “)
5-13 Liao Jin Yuanguan system (6’41 “)
5-14 Ming Central Official (8’53 “)
Local Official 5-15 Ming (4’27 “)
5-16 Qing Central Official (7’18 “)
5-17 Local Official Qing (10’24 “)
5-18 Official System development features (4’21 “)

Week 5 zhōngguó gǔdài de zhí guānzhìdù

zhōngguó gǔdài de zhí guānzhìdù (PDF) for 5-01 xià shāng shídài de guānzhì (12’06“)
5-01 xià shāng shídài de guānzhì (12’06“)
5-02 xīzhōu guānzhì (12‘56”)
5-03 chūnqiū zhànguó guānzhì (15’56“)
5-04 qínhàn zhōngyāng guānzhì (14’07”)
5-05 qínhàn dìfāng guānzhì (14‘43“)
5-06 wèi jìn zhōngyāng guānzhì (10’24”)
5-07 wèi jìn dìfāng guānzhì (6‘03“)
5-08 suí cháo guānzhì (7’23”)
5-09 táng cháo zhōngyāng guānzhì (12‘36“)
5-10 táng cháo dìfāng guānzhì (13’04“)
5-11 sòngdài guānzhì (1)(8‘23”)
5-12 sòngdài guānzhì (2)(12’05“)
5-13 liáo jīn yuán guānzhì (6‘41”)
5-14 míng zhōngyāng guānzhì (8’53“)
5-15 míng dìfāng guānzhì (4‘27”)
5-16 qīng zhōngyāng guān zhì (7’18“)
5-17 qīng dìfāng guān zhì (10‘24”)
5-18 zhí guān zhìdù fāzhǎn de tèdiǎn (4’21“)

*** week 6 中国古代的科举制度

6-01 科举考试的程序与内容(13‘11“)
6-02 相关规定1:对考生、考官的规定(8‘49“)
6-03 相关规定2——对试卷、考场的规定(9’07”)
6-04 相关规定3——相关诗词、图片资料(11‘37“)
6-05 相关规定4——相关记载(5’47”)
6-06 科举考试的内容与考题(5‘56“)
6-07 试帖诗、八股文举例1——试帖诗(9‘47”)
6-08 试帖诗、八股文举例2——八股文(11’34“)
6-09 试帖诗、八股文举例3——八股文举例(8‘45”)
6-10 作弊现象1——作弊手段(8’53“)
6-11 作弊现象2——对作弊的惩罚及对科举制的反思(4‘05”)
6-12 中国古代科举制度简评(10’14“)

week 6 Chinese ancient imperial examination system TRANSLATE ALL AND RESTUDY AFTER BOOK

6-01 imperial examination procedures and content (13’11 “)
6-02 relevant provisions of 1: For the candidates, the examiner’s provisions (8’49 “)
6-03 2– relevant provisions for papers, examination requirements (9’07 “)
6-04 3– relevant provisions related poetry, picture data (11’37 “)
6-05 4– relevant provisions related records (5’47 “)
6-06 imperial examination of the contents of the exam (5’56 “)
6-07 test Poems, Poems stereotyped example 1– test (9’47 “)
6-08 test Poems, stereotyped stereotyped example 2– (11’34 “)
6-09 test Poems, stereotyped stereotyped example 3– example (8’45 “)
6-10 cheating cheating 1– (8’53 “)
6-11 cheating 2– punishment for cheating and reflection on the Imperial Examination System (4’05 “)
Comment 6-12 Chinese ancient imperial examination system (10’14 “)

Week 6 zhōngguó gǔdài de kējǔ zhìdù

6-01 kējǔ kǎoshì de chéngxù yǔ nèiróng (13‘11“)
6-02 xiāngguān guīdìng 1: Duì kǎoshēng, kǎoguān de guīdìng (8‘49“)
6-03 xiāngguān guīdìng 2——duì shìjuàn, kǎochǎng de guīdìng (9’07”)
6-04 xiāngguān guīdìng 3——xiāngguān shīcí, túpiàn zīliào (11‘37“)
6-05 xiāngguān guīdìng 4——xiāngguān jìzǎi (5’47”)
6-06 kējǔ kǎoshì de nèiróng yǔ kǎotí (5‘56“)
6-07 shì tiè shī, bāgǔ wén jǔlì 1——shì tiè shī (9‘47”)
6-08 shì tiè shī, bāgǔ wén jǔlì 2——bāgǔ wén (11’34“)
6-09 shì tiè shī, bāgǔ wén jǔlì 3——bāgǔ wén jǔlì (8‘45”)
6-10 zuòbì xiànxiàng 1——zuòbì shǒuduàn (8’53“)
6-11 zuòbì xiànxiàng 2——duì zuòbì de chéngfá jí duì kējǔ zhì de fǎnsī (4‘05”)
6-12 zhōngguó gǔdài kējǔ zhìdù jiǎn píng (10’14“)

week 7 中国古代的书籍制度

7-1 书籍的起源(15’18”)
7-2 简牍制度1——简牍的使用 (10’32”)
7-3 简牍制度2——简牍制度的影响 (7’00”)
7-4 卷轴制度1——帛书的使用 (9’05”)
7-5 卷轴制度2——纸的使用 (10’28”)
7-6 卷轴制度3——卷轴形制的演进 (7’47”)
7-7 册页制度1——蝴蝶装与包背装 (7’19”)
7-8 册页制度2——线装 (10’44”)

week 7 Chinese ancient books system

7-1 books of origin (15’18 ”)
7-2 Slips Slips system 1– use (10’32 ”)
Slips system affect 2– 7-3 Slips system (7’00 ”)
7-4 spool system uses silk manuscripts 1– (9’05 ”)
7-5 2– paper reel system uses (10’28 ”)
Evolution 7-6 reel spool system 3– Shapes (7’47 ”)
7-7 system 1– album butterfly dress with back-mounted package (7’19 ”)
7-8 wire-bound album system 2– (10’44 ”)

Week 7 zhōngguó gǔdài de shūjí zhìdù

7-1 shūjí de qǐyuán (15’18”)
7-2 jiǎn dú zhìdù 1——jiǎn dú de shǐyòng (10’32”)
7-3 jiǎn dú zhìdù 2——jiǎn dú zhìdù de yǐngxiǎng (7’00”)
7-4 juànzhóu zhìdù 1——bóshū de shǐyòng (9’05”)
7-5 juànzhóu zhìdù 2——zhǐ de shǐyòng (10’28”)
7-6 juànzhóu zhìdù 3——juànzhóu xíngzhì de yǎnjìn (7’47”)
7-7 cèyè zhìdù 1——húdié zhuāng yǔ bāo bèi zhuāng (7’19”)
7-8 cèyè zhìdù 2——xiànzhuāng (10’44”)

week 8 中国古代的饮食文化

中国古代的饮食文化 for 8-0 引言 (48″)
8-0 引言 (48″)
8-1 饮食与礼仪(1)(13’53”)
8-2 饮食与礼仪(2)(5’14”)
8-3 饮食与人生(11’07”)
8-4 饮食与政治(1)(11’28”)
8-5 饮食与政治(2)(9’00”)
8-6 饮食与美(1)(8’12”)
8-7 饮食与美(2)(8’51”)

week 8 ancient Chinese food culture

Ancient Chinese food culture for 8-0 Introduction (48 “)
8-0 Introduction (48 “)
8-1 diet and etiquette (1) (13’53 “)
Diet and etiquette 8-2 (2) (5’14 “)
8-3 Diet and Life (11’07 “)
8-4 diet and Politics (1) (11’28 “)
8-5 Diet and politics (2) (9’00 “)
8-6 diet and beauty (1) (8’12 “)
8-7 diet and beauty (2) (8’51 “)

Week 8 zhōngguó gǔdài de yǐnshí wénhuà

zhōngguó gǔdài de yǐnshí wénhuà for 8-0 yǐnyán (48″)
8-0 yǐnyán (48″)
8-1 yǐnshí yǔ lǐyí (1)(13’53”)
8-2 yǐnshí yǔ lǐyí (2)(5’14”)
8-3 yǐnshí yǔ rénshēng (11’07”)
8-4 yǐnshí yǔ zhèngzhì (1)(11’28”)
8-5 yǐnshí yǔ zhèngzhì (2)(9’00”)
8-6 yǐnshí yǔ měi (1)(8’12”)
8-7 yǐnshí yǔ měi (2)(8’51”)

week 9 中国古代的居室与园林

中国古代的居室与园林(讲义).pdf for 9-01 古代建筑的类型(1)(13’01”)
9-01 古代建筑的类型(1)(13’01”)
9-02 古代建筑的类型(2)(8’50”)
9-03 古代建筑的类型(3)(10’57”)
9-04 古代建筑的特色(1)(17’58”)
9-05 古代建筑的特色(2)(11’41”)
9-06 古代建筑的特色(3)(13’04”)
9-07 古代建筑的特色(4)(7’33”)
9-08 居室与村落的功能区 (14’46”)
9-09 古典园林的分类(1)(11’25”)
9-10 古典园林的分类(2)(5’12”)
9-11 皇家园林的空间原则(11’38”)
9-12 私家园林的空间原则 (12’51”)
9-13 古典园林的置景艺术(1) (9’33”)
9-14 古典园林的置景艺术(2) (7’52”)

week 9 room with ancient Chinese garden

Ancient Chinese bedroom and gardens (Handout) .pdf for type 9-01 ancient architecture (1) (13’01 ”)
9-01 ancient architecture type (1) (13’01 ”)
9-02 type of ancient buildings (2) (8’50 ”)
9-03 of ancient types of buildings (3) (10’57 ”)
9-04 ancient architectural features (1) (17’58 ”)
9-05 ancient architectural features (2) (11’41 ”)
9-06 ancient architectural features (3) (13’04 ”)
9-07 features ancient architecture (4) (7’33 ”)
9-08 bedroom and villages Ribbon (14’46 ”)
9-09 classical gardens of classification (1) (11’25 ”)
9-10 classical gardens of classification (2) (5’12 ”)
9-11 royal garden space principles (11’38 ”)
9-12 private garden space principles (12’51 ”)
9-13 classical gardens home landscape art (1) (9’33 ”)
9-14 classical gardens home landscape art (2) (7’52 ”)

Week 9 zhōngguó gǔdài de jūshì yǔ yuánlín

zhōngguó gǔdài de jūshì yǔ yuánlín (jiǎngyì).Pdf for 9-01 gǔdài jiànzhú de lèixíng (1)(13’01”)
9-01 gǔdài jiànzhú de lèixíng (1)(13’01”)
9-02 gǔdài jiànzhú de lèixíng (2)(8’50”)
9-03 gǔdài jiànzhú de lèixíng (3)(10’57”)
9-04 gǔdài jiànzhú de tèsè (1)(17’58”)
9-05 gǔdài jiànzhú de tèsè (2)(11’41”)
9-06 gǔdài jiànzhú de tèsè (3)(13’04”)
9-07 gǔdài jiànzhú de tèsè (4)(7’33”)
9-08 jūshì yǔ cūnluò de gōngnéng qū (14’46”)
9-09 gǔdiǎn yuánlín de fēnlèi (1)(11’25”)
9-10 gǔdiǎn yuánlín de fēnlèi (2)(5’12”)
9-11 huángjiā yuánlín de kōngjiān yuánzé (11’38”)
9-12 sījiā yuánlín de kōngjiān yuánzé (12’51”)
9-13 gǔdiǎn yuánlín de zhì jǐng yìshù (1) (9’33”)
9-14 gǔdiǎn yuánlín de zhì jǐng yìshù (2) (7’52”)

week 10 中国古代的原始信仰与重要节日

10-1 中国古代的原始信仰与宗教崇拜 (13’09”)
10-2 节日的概念与古代节日类型 (12’53”)
10-3 中国古代的重要节日——春节(1) (7’30”)
10-4 中国古代的重要节日——春节(2) (13’11”)
10-5 中国古代的重要节日——清明节 (12’03”)
10-6 中国古代的重要节日——端午节 (11’03”)
10-7 中国古代的重要节日——中秋节 (8’48”)

week 10 of the original ancient Chinese beliefs and important festivals

10-1 Chinese ancient primitive faith and worship (13’09 ”)
10-2 holiday concept with ancient festival type (12’53 ”)
10-3 major festivals in ancient China – Chinese New Year (1) (7’30 ”)
10-4 major festivals in ancient China – Chinese New Year (2) (13’11 ”)
10-5 major festivals in ancient China – Ching Ming Festival (12’03 ”)
10-6 major festivals in ancient China – Dragon Boat Festival (11’03 ”)
10-7 major festivals in ancient China – Mid-Autumn Festival (8’48 ”)

Week 10 zhōngguó gǔdài de yuánshǐ xìnyǎng yǔ zhòngyào jiérì

10-1 zhōngguó gǔdài de yuánshǐ xìnyǎng yǔ zōngjiào chóngbài (13’09”)
10-2 jiérì de gàiniàn yǔ gǔdài jiérì lèixíng (12’53”)
10-3 zhōngguó gǔdài de zhòngyào jiérì——chūnjié (1) (7’30”)
10-4 zhōngguó gǔdài de zhòngyào jiérì——chūnjié (2) (13’11”)
10-5 zhōngguó gǔdài de zhòngyào jiérì——qīngmíng jié (12’03”)
10-6 zhōngguó gǔdài de zhòngyào jiérì——duānwǔ jié (11’03”)
10-7 zhōngguó gǔdài de zhòngyào jiérì——zhōngqiū jié (8’48”)


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